Median hourly wage (2017$) Median annual wage income (2017$) Poverty rate Average weekly work hours Average annual work hours All D.C. workers $31.96 $67,387 4.7% 41.5 2,075 Nontipped workers $32.45 $69,462 4.5% 41.6 2,083 All tipped workers $14.41 $23,798 13.7% 35.8 1,694 Servers & bartenders $14.24 $22,763 13.9% 35.7 1,668

Notes:?Data are for workers whose place of work is in the District of Columbia. Tipped occupations are listed in Appendix Table A1. Wage and annual wage income values for tipped workers include both base wages and tips.

Source: EPI analysis of American Community Survey microdata, pooled years 2012–2016?(Ruggles et al. 2018)

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Appendix Table A4

Wages, incomes, and poverty rates of tipped workers in the District of Columbia, by demographic group

Median hourly wage (2017$) Median annual wage income (2017$) Poverty rate Average weekly work hours
All tipped workers $14.41 $23,798 13.7% 35.8
Gender
Women $13.39 $21,080 15.7% 34.1
Men $14.49 $26,350 11.8% 37.5
Gender gap (women/men) -7.7% -20.0% 3.9 ppt. -9.3%
Race/ethnicity
White $16.40 $27,810 12.1% 36.2
Black $12.68 $21,393 18.5% 34.3
Hispanic, any race $13.46 $24,832 8.6% 35.8
Asian or other race/ethnicity $15.22 $22,763 16.7% 37.7
Black relative to white -22.7% -23.1% 6.4 ppt. -5.1%
Hispanic relative to white -17.9% -10.7% -3.5 ppt. -1.0%
Family status
Married parent $15.92 $26,741 6.0% 36.6
Single parent $11.96 $20,694 21.0% 33.4
Married, no children $16.53 $24,875 11.1% 36.2
Single, no children $13.74 $23,083 15.3% 35.9

Notes: Data are for workers whose place of work is in the District of Columbia. Tipped occupations are listed in Appendix Table A1. Wage and income values for tipped workers include both base wages and tips.?Hispanic workers include Hispanics of any race, and the race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (e.g., “white” refers to non-Hispanic white).

Source: EPI analysis of American Community Survey microdata, pooled years 2012–2016?(Ruggles et al. 2018)

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Appendix Table A5

Median wages from the May 2017 Occupational Employment Statistics, by occupation and city or metro division (2017 dollars)

District of Columbia San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco metro division San Francisco relative to D.C. Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, Wash. metro division Seattle relative to D.C.
All occupations $33.82 $27.55 82% $24.30 72%
Waiters & waitresses $11.86 $14.32 121% $13.76 116%
Relative to all occupations 35% 52% 57%
Bartenders $15.05 $14.91 99% $13.89 92%
Relative to all occupations 45% 54% 57%

Source: May 2017 Occupational Employment Statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Appendix Table A6

Median wages, incomes, and poverty rates of all workers, tipped workers, and nontipped workers in the District of Columbia, San Francisco, and King County, Washington

 

District of Columbia San Francisco San Francisco relative to D.C. King County, Wash. King County, Wash., relative to D.C.
Hourly wages (2017 dollars)
Overall workforce $31.96 $28.57 89% $24.51 77%
Nontipped workers $32.45 $29.50 91% $24.79 76%
Tipped workers $14.41 $15.50 108% $15.12 105%
Relative to overall workforce 45% 54% 62%
Relative to nontipped workers 44% 53% 61%
Servers & bartenders $14.24 $17.16 121% $15.22 107%
Relative to overall workforce 45% 60% 62%
Relative to nontipped workers 44% 58% 61%
Annual wage income (2017 dollars)
Overall workforce $67,387 $57,971 86% $49,032 73%
Nontipped workers $69,462 $60,269 87% $50,593 73%
Tipped workers $23,798 $25,538 107% $22,763 96%
Relative to overall workforce 35% 44% 46%
Relative to nontipped workers 34% 42% 45%
Servers & bartenders $22,763 $28,880 127% $21,393 94%
Relative to overall workforce 34% 50% 44%
Relative to nontipped workers 33% 48% 42%
Poverty rate
Overall workforce 4.7% 7.1% 1.51 6.2% 1.31
Nontipped workers 4.5% 6.9% 1.52 6.0% 1.32
Tipped workers 13.7% 14.5% 1.06 13.0% 0.95
Relative to overall workforce 2.9 2.0 2.1
Relative to nontipped workers 3.0 2.1 2.2
Servers & bartenders 13.9% 14.8% 1.06 14.4% 1.04
Relative to overall workforce 2.9 2.1 2.3
Relative to nontipped workers 3.1 2.1 2.4

Note:?Hourly and annual wages include both base wages and tips.

Source: EPI analysis of American Community Survey microdata, pooled years 2012–2016?(Ruggles et al. 2018)

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Appendix Table A7

Numbers and shares of full-service restaurants that are “small businesses” in D.C., San Francisco, and King County, Washington

 

District of Columbia
Total establishments Establishments with 1–49 employees 1–49 share of total Establishments with 1–19 employees 1–19 share of total
2010 705 569 80.7% 385 54.6%
2011 723 584 80.8% 393 54.4%
2012 742 586 79.0% 370 49.9%
2013 771 617 80.0% 394 51.1%
2014 806 639 79.3% 398 49.4%
2015 834 649 77.8% 405 48.6%
2016 881 690 78.3% 429 48.7%
Average annual change 2010–2016 4.2% 3.5% -2.4 ppt. (total change) 1.9% -5.9 ppt. (total change)
Average annual change 2013–2016 4.8% 3.9% -1.7 ppt. (total change) 3.0% -2.4 ppt. (total change)
San Francisco
Total establishments Establishments with 1–49 employees 1–49 share of total Establishments with 1–19 employees 1–19 share of total
2010 1,755 1,618 92.2% 1354 77.2%
2011 1,764 1,623 92.0% 1322 74.9%
2012 1,784 1,636 91.7% 1333 74.7%
2013 1,847 1,699 92.0% 1375 74.4%
2014 1,893 1,718 90.8% 1369 72.3%
2015 1,922 1,738 90.4% 1376 71.6%
2016 1,917 1,726 90.0% 1352 70.5%
Average annual change 2010–2016 1.5% 1.1% -2.2 ppt. (total change) 0.0% -6.7 ppt. (total change)
Average annual change 2013–2016 1.3% 0.5% -2.0 ppt. (total change) -0.6% -3.9 ppt. (total change)
King County, Wash.
Total establishments Establishments with 1–49 employees 1–49 share of total Establishments with 1–19 employees 1–19 share of total
2010 2,140 1,973 92.2% 1518 70.9%
2011 2,160 1,991 92.2% 1514 70.1%
2012 2,188 2,018 92.2% 1532 70.0%
2013 2,261 2,088 92.3% 1567 69.3%
2014 2,301 2,105 91.5% 1564 68.0%
2015 2,356 2,141 90.9% 1581 67.1%
2016 2,454 2,232 91.0% 1625 66.2%
Average annual change 2010–2016 2.4% 2.2% -1.2 ppt. (total change) 1.2% -4.7 ppt. (total change)
Average annual change 2013–2016 2.8% 2.3% -1.4 ppt. (total change) 1.2% -3.1 ppt. (total change)

Source:?EPI analysis of County Business Patterns data (U.S. Census Bureau)

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

References

Allegretto, Sylvia, Anna Godoey, Carl Nadler, and Michael Reich. 2018. The New Wave of Local Minimum Wages Policies: Evidence from Six Cities. Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California Berkeley, September 2018.

Allegretto, Sylvia, and Carl Nadler. 2015.?“Tipped Wage Effects on Earnings and Employment in Full-Service Restaurants.”?Industrial Relations?54, no. 4: 622–647.

Allegretto, Sylvia, and David Cooper. 2014.?Twenty-Three Years and Still Waiting for Change: Why It’s Time to Give Tipped Workers the Regular Minimum Wage.?Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper no. 379, July 2014.

Bernhardt, Annette, Ruth Milkman, Nik Theodore, Douglas Heckathorn, Mirabai Auer, James DeFilippis, Ana Luz Gonzalez, Victor Narro, Jason Perelshteyn, Diana Polson, and Michael Spiller. 2009.?Broken Laws, Unprotected Workers: Violations of Employment and Labor Laws in America’s Cities.?Center for Urban Economic Development, National Employment Law Project, and UCLA Institute for Research on Labor and Employment.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics (BLS-OES). 2017. Public data series accessed through the?OES Databases. Accessed July 2018.

Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (BLS-QCEW).?Various years. Public data series accessed through the QCEW are available through the?QCEW Databases?and through?series reports.

Casteel, Kathryn. 2018. “#MeToo Media Outrage Isn’t Enough to Change the Service Industry.” Quartz, August 21, 2018.

City of SeaTac. 2018. “Employment Standards Ordinance” (web page). Accessed September 6, 2018.

City of Takoma. 2018. “Minimum Wage” (web page). Accessed September 6, 2018.

Cooper, David. 2017. “Valentine’s Day Is Better on the West Coast (at Least for Restaurant Servers).”?Working Economics?(Economic Policy Institute blog), February 9, 2017.

Cooper, David, and Teresa Kroeger. 2017.?Employers Steal Billions from Workers’ Paychecks Each Year. Economic Policy Institute, May 2017.

Cooper, David, Lawrence Mishel, and Ben Zipperer. 2018.?Bold Increases in the Minimum Wage Should Be Evaluated for the Benefits of Raising Low-Wage Workers’ Total Earnings. Economic Policy Institute, April 2018.

District of Columbia (D.C.) Board of Elections. 2018. “Primary Election 2018—Certified Results.” Election date Tuesday, June 19, 2018; last updated Monday, July 9, 2018.

Economic Policy Institute. 2018. “Minimum Wage Tracker” (interactive map). Last updated July 12, 2018.

Gould, Elise, Jessica Schieder, and Kathleen Geier. 2016. What Is the Gender Pay Gap and Is It Real? Economic Policy Institute, October 2016.

Jamison, Peter. 2018. “Majority of D.C. Council Moves to Overturn Tipped-Wage Ballot Measure.Washington Post, July 10, 2018.

Katz, Lawrence F., and Alan B. Krueger. 2016. “The Rise and the Nature of Work Arrangements in the United States.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 22667, September 2016.

Lynn, Michael. 2001. “Restaurant Tips and Service Quality: A Tenuous Relationship.” Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly?42: 14–20.

Lynn, Michael, Michael Sturman, Christie Ganley, Elizabeth Adams, Mathew Douglas, and Jessica McNeil. 2008.?“Consumer Racial Discrimination in Tipping: A Replication and Extension,”?Journal of Applied Social Psychology?38: 1045–1060.?http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00338.x/full.

National Employment Law Project. 2013. Consider the Source: 100 Years of Broken-Record Opposition to the Minimum Wage. National Employment Law Project, March 2013.

One Fair Wage DC. 2018. “Ballot Info” (web page). Accessed September 7, 2018.

Ruggles, Steven, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. 2018. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series USA: Version 8.0 [data set]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0.

San Francisco Office of Labor Standards Enforcement. 2018. “MCO Historical Rates” (web page). Accessed September 6, 2018.

Schmitt, John. 2013.?Why Does the Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect on Employment??Center for Economic and Policy Research.

Seattle Office of Labor Standards. 2018. “Seattle’s Minimum Wage” (web page) and “Minimum Wage Ordinance” (web page). Accessed September 6, 2018.

Steingart, Jon. 2018. “Restaurant Group Agrees to $1.49M Pay, Sick Leave Settlement.Bloomberg Law,?August 22, 2018.

U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns (CBP). Various years. Public data series accessed through the CBP Databases. Accessed August 2018.

Washington State Department of Labor & Industries. 2018. “History of Washington Minimum Wage” (web page). Accessed September 6, 2018.


See related work on Minimum wage | Tipped Minimum Wage

See more work by David Cooper

任我爽